HISTORIAL INCONCLUSO DE LA DROGUERÍA TAQUECHEL


La Droguería Taquechel desde su inicio el Miércoles 27 de Abril de 1898 ha mantenido sus puertas abiertas atendiendo al pueblo Cubano. Las fechas mas significativas en su historia son el Jueves 13 de Octubre de 1960 al imponerse ilegalmente la Ley No. 890 del Gobierno Revolucionario Cubano y el Martes 12 de Marzo de 1996 al firmarse la ley Número 104-114 de la sesión del Congreso de los Estados de Unidos de América No. 104.
A continuación haremos un:

*1.-HISTORIAL Y EXPOSICIÓN DE HECHOS
*2.-DESGLOSE SUMARIO DE LEY 890 Y PUBLIC LAW 104-114
*(a)-Ley 890.
*(b)-Public Law 104-114.
*3.-CONCLUSIÓN
*4.-DOCUMENTACIÓN
*5.-ÍNDICE / INDEX Y BIBLIOGRAFÍA






*1. HISTORIAL Y EXPOSICIÓN DE HECHOS

Adquiere el Doctor Taquechel la antigua farmacia Santa Rita situada al costado de la Capitanía General, residencia Oficial de los Gobernadores Españoles en Cuba desde 1791, en la "Calle de Los Obispos" No.155 casi a esquina de la "Calle de Los Mercaderes" y abre sus puertas por primera vez el Miércoles 27 de Abril de 1898 con el ideal y la dedicación de atender al pueblo Cubano basado en la filosofía de sus tres pilares fundamentales que durante su existencia se consolidó innumerablemente, HONESTIDAD, CALIDAD Y SERVICIO.
Siguiendo su postura apolítica pero ante todo manteniendo su espíritu patriótico por la libertad de Cuba no solo abastece a la Capitanía General sino tambien al Ejercito Mambi a travez de sus hermanas, amistades y patriotas Cubanos en Santiago de Cuba y ayudaba asi clandestinamente a la causa por la liberación de Cuba.
En 1899 se constituyó en La Habana la "Asociación Médico Farmacéutica de la Isla de Cuba" bajo la dirección del Doctor Enrique B. Barnet y Roque de Escobar. La Asociación se creó con el objetivo de unir de manera firme y compacta a todos los profesionales de la ciencia de curar y a los farmacéuticos respetables de la isla, a fin de que de dicho vínculo naciera la fuerza del derecho de dar a esas profesiones mayor reputación ante el gobierno, la sociedad y ante los propios asociados. Por su parte, la Revista, de su nombre, se fundó para que fuera el "eco y reflejo de la asociación, de sus gestiones y resultados, de sus esfuerzos y recompensas, de sus propósitos y aspiraciones". Es de notar que entre los farmacéuticos que mas se distinguieron como autores de trabajos allí publicados figura el Doctor Francisco Taquechel.*(1.)
Enero de 1900, conociéndose ya nacionalmente la farmacia Santa Rita por la farmacia de Taquechel, decide Francisco cambiarle el nombre a "Farmacia y Droguería Taquechel ".
Teniendo el dominio absoluto del frances y considerando que la mayoría de los fármacos provenian de Francia el Doctor Taquechel se consolida conjuntamente con las droguerias Sarrá y Johnson entre los importadores mas importantes de Cuba. Innova en su plan de expansión y de ramificación nacional la práctica de el menor precio vendiéndole estos productos a farmacias practicamente a costo para obtener mercado y consolidar su nombre nacionalmente pero ante todo no olvidando sus tres pilares filosóficos, HONESTIDAD, CALIDAD Y SERVICIO.
La Habana, Martes, 20 de Mayo de 1902, 33 años del Grito de Yara, invitan personalmente al Doctor Taquechel a la Capitanía General para que se una al Presidente Don Tomás Estrada Palma al traspaso de la intervención Americana a una Cuba libre y soberana. El Doctor Taquechel manteniendo su postura de no inmiscuirse en los asuntos políticos, se excusa y le reitera a su amigo Don Tomás, su postura, Don Tomás lo comprende y lo accepta, el Doctor Taquechel le confirma su apoyo incondicional, su solidaridad y le desea éxito en su nueva tarea.
Francisco, habiendose consolidado económicamente, regresa a su muy querido Santiago de Cuba donde residen sus padres Don Pedro Vicente Taquechel Vigneron y Doña Florencia Justina Mirabal Ledson con sus siete hermanas:

Maria Isabel,(n.12 Junio,1865),(Padr.Don Bernardo Clemenceau y Doña Marcelina Ducongé)
Contrajo matrimonio con: Pedro Montero
(h) Pedro Montero Taquechel
(h) Eduardo Montero Taquechel
(h) Isabel Montero Taquechel
Maria Agueda,(n.1867)
Fallecida a muy temprana edad.
Maria Dolores Eustaquia,(n.20 Sept,1871),(Padr.Jose Enrique Nuñez y Maria Clemenceu)
Soltera sin descendencia
Dolores,(n.1873)
Fallecida a muy temprana edad.
Justina Modesta Crescencia,(n.15 Junio,1874),(Padr.Jose Pomar y su esposa Francisca)
Contrajo matrimonio con: Ricardo Danza
(h) Elena Danza Taquechel
(h) Ricardo Danza Taquechel
Maria Dominga de la Caridad,(n.12 de Mayo,1876),(Padr.Manuel Rebustillos y Caridad Ortiz)
Contrajo matrimonio con: Jose Grimany
(h) Caridad Grimany Taquechel
(h) Jose Grimany Taquechel
(h) Lidia Grimany Taquechel
Mariana Clotilde,(Belica),(n.3 de Junio de 1878),(Padr.Santiago Castillo y Maria Taquechel)
Soltera sin descendencia
Maria de los Angeles de la Concepcion,(Conchita),(n.31 de Marzo,1880),(Padr.Ramon Gainza y
Dolores Cuevas)
Soltera sin descendencia
Maria del Carmen Maura,(n.30 de Noviembre,1884)(Padr.Pedro Celestino Montero y Eugenia Taquechel)
Contrajo matrimonio con: Rafael Sanchez
(h) Rafael Sanchez Taquechel
(h) Florencia Sanchez Taquechel
(h) Victoria Sanchez Taquechel
(h) Mercedes Sanchez Taquechel

donde compartió sus años de juventud para pedir oficialmente la mano de su novia Caridad hija de un ganadero y terrateniente prominente de Santiago, Don Manuel Barrueco Diez y su distinguida esposa Doña Caridad Rosell, el cual el accepta y Caridad se une en matimonio con Francisco el Domingo, 5 de Junio de 1905 y consequentemente regresa el matrimonio a vivir en la casa del Doctor Taquechel ubicada en la calle de Jesus del Monte número seiscientos veintiuno.

Registro Civil, Municipio del Oeste de la Habana, folio 257 del tomo 27 de la Seccion de Nacimientos carta número q251, aparece el siguiente acta inscribiendo a una niña con el nombre de Mercedes Wenceslaa Taquechel Barrueco nacida en el domicilio de sus padres Caridad Barrueco Rosell y de Francisco Taquechel Mirabal a la una de la mañana del dia veintiocho de Septiembre de mil novecientos siete, heredando, al morir sus padres, siendo única hija, innumerables bienes raíces en el casco histórico de La Habana, en la ciudad de La Habana, Vedado, Miramar, La Víbora y Marianao por parte de su madre y de la Droguería Taquechel, su residencia de la Calle 13 # 851 esquina a 4 en el Vedado (en donde nacieron sus tres hijos: Joaquín, Francisco y Antonio) y de una estancia campestre de recreo en las cercanías de La Habana, en el Municipio de Santiago de Las Vegas, por parte de su padre.

1908-1922 Expansión nacional de Taquechel.

Mi abuelo, al observar las grandes cualidades empresariales de mi padre, ya habiendo trabajado juntos por mas de un año, le aconseja matricularse de noche en la Universidad de La Habana y el joven Joaquín asi lo hace, siendo el único sostén económico de su madre Consuelo, ya viuda, continua su empleo de dia y estudios de noche y el 8 de Noviembre de 1927 con 24 años de edad obtiene el título de " Doctor en Farmacia ".--*( DOCUMENTO A.)(Oprimir para ver titulo)
Las vivencias de la niñez y juventud se quedan impregnadas por el resto de nuestras vidas en nuestra subconciencia y al recordarlas en el transcurso del tiempo se les añora, estas son algunas que merecen mencionar pues son parte del historial de la familia Viñals Taquechel.
Durante mi niñez y juventud recuerdo a mi padre los Domingos su costumbre de levantarse temprano, desayunar e ir al Correo Central que quedaba al lado de La Lonja del Comercio, recoger la correspondencia llevarla a la droguería y sentarse en su escritorio abriéndola y distribuyendo todos los pedidos de órdenes a los departamentos indicados con el fin de que cuando los empleados llegaran el Lunes por la mañana las órdenes fueran despachadas con mas rapidez, yo por muchos años lo acompañaba, y era también de rutina fija al regresar a casa, usualmente despues de un par de horas, parar en la Casa Suarez a la entrada de el Paseo del Prado a comprar magdalenas para llevarlas a casa y asi complementar de postre el acostumbrado almuerzo de arroz con pollo del Domingo. Esta rutina del Domingo, que mi padre continuo de mi abuelo fue la que produjo la unión de mis padres.
Domingo 22 de Enero de 1928, ya viviendo mi abuelo en su nueva residencia del Vedado, en la Calle 13 # 851 esquina a 4, ( Nota: la cual fue expropiada ilegalmente por el Gobierno Revolucionario Cubano en Julio de 1961 y cedida originalmente a la Embajada del Gobierno de Albania; en la actualidad es la oficina principal del Ministerio del Interior ) como de costumbre le dice a Cachita que prepare al chofer pues pasaría por el correo a buscar la correspondencia y llevarla a la droguería para distribuirla y como de costumbre le acompañaría su hija Merceditas, la gran diferencia de este Domingo fue que al llegar a la droguería el joven Joaquín se encontraba en ella trabajando en la reorganización de unos departamentos y asi fue como se conocieron mis padres, ese mismo Domingo fueron los tres a tomar un dulce al Hotel Ambos Mundos el cual colinda con la droguería y el cual mi abuelo era muy amigo del dueño. La amistad se acrecenta, Joaquín regresando los Domingos a la droguería y Merceditas con aun mas interes de acompañar a su padre, pasan varios Domingos y a petición de mamá mi abuelo invita a mi padre a que los acompañe a almorzar en la casa, pasado un año mis padres se hacen novios y el Sabado 26 de Abril de 1930 habiendo transcurrido mas de dos años de conocerse contraen matrimonio en la Iglesia Parroquial del Vedado, en lo que a continuación se celebró con una recepción.


La Habana, Lunes, 10 de Octubre de 1949, Conmemoración del Grito de Yara, habiendose firmada conjuntamente por el Presidente de la República de Cuba, Carlos Prio Socarras y por el Ministro de Comercio, le notifican al Doctor Francisco Taquechel que se le ha otorgado la condecoración mas alta y prestigiosa que el Gobierno Cubano confiere a un comerciante,
" La Orden del Merito Comercial, Diploma de Honor, Gran Oficial."*( DOCUMENTO B.)(Oprimir para ver Condecoración y Joya Otorgada)



Nota:
El historial de la Droguería esta en proceso de ser
redactado, perdonen por la demora, gracias.



A las 11:45 a.m. del Jueves 13 de Octubre de 1960, dia de la expropiación ilegal, el designado interventor, fue enviado por la Oficina Comercial del Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria representando al Gobierno Revolucionario Cubano, a la Droguería Taquechel y habiendo preparado un acta ( carta de dos paginas ) de traspaso, y estando presentes Joaquín, Francisco, y Antonio Viñals Taquechel, le hace la siguiente pregunta a Joaquín Viñals, en representación de la Droguería Taquechel, " TIENE UD. ALGO MAS QUE AGREGAR. ", la contesta fue " NO ", y sin una palabra mas, las cinco personas presentes, percatándose y percibiendo la magnitud de lo acontecido, estando ausente por supuesto el estrechez de mano y sin habla por unos cuantos segundos se observó por última vez la integridad y estoismo de la familia Taquechel y también el enfrentamiento de las miradas de los Taquechel, hacia el interventor, que sin palabras, expresaban, VOLVEREMOS , y fue cuando los tres hermanos caminaron por última vez las oficinas que por tantos años fueron parte de sus vidas no solo las de ellos sino también las de nuestra madre, padre y abuelo, el inolvidable y querido fundador.






*2. DESGLOSE SUMARIO DE LEY 890 Y PUBLIC LAW 104-114

*(a)-Ley 890.

GACETA OFICIAL de la República de Cuba --*(Ver Índice: Nota 1. al pie)
Edición Extraordinaria de Publicación - La Habana, Sábado 15 de Octubre de 1960
Año LVII - Tomo Quincenal Número XIX,

PODER EJECUTIVO - MINISTERIOS

OSWALDO DORTICOS TORRADO, Presidente de la República de Cuba....,
Hago saber: Que el Consejo de Ministros ha acordado y yo he sancionado lo siguiente:

POR QUANTO: La obra creadora de la Revolución, en sus multiples aspectos, esta basada fundamentalmente en el pleno desarrollo de la Nación.

POR QUANTO: Es evidente que ese desarrollo no puede lograrse sino mediante la planificación adecuada de la economía, el aumento y racionalización progresiva de la producción y el control nacional de las industrias basicas del pais.

POR QUANTO: Muchas de las grandes empresas privadas del pais lejos de asumir una conducta consistentes con los objetivos y metas de la transformación revolucionaria de la economia nacional, han seguido una politica contraria a los intereses de la Revolución y del desarrollo economico, cuyos signos mas evidentes y notorios han sido el sabotaje a la producción; la extracción del numerario sin reinversiones adecuadas; la utilización exagerada de los medios de financiamiento sin empleo del propio capital operativo con la ostensible finalidad de acumular efectivo y de invertirlo en el extranjero previa obtención clandestina de divisas, y el abandono frecuente de la dirección directa de las fabricas lo que, en muchas ocasiones, ha obligado la intervención por el Ministro del Trabajo en evitación preventiva de la crisis laboral que el cierre o la disminución de la producción puedan crear.

POR QUANTO: Esa conducta resulta aun mas definidamente contraria a los intereses de la Revolución por ocurrir a pesar de que ha aumentado considerablemente el consumo del pais y, por consiguiente, se ha ampliado el mercado interno para dichas empresas.

POR QUANTO: El desarrollo economico de la Nación ha requerido, como condición insoslayable, la radical transformación de la estructura de nuestro comercio exterior, para lo cual se ha impuesto el control nacional de las importaciones mediante el funcionamiento del "Banco para el Comercio Exterior de Cuba" y es evidente que la subsistencia de las grandes empresas importadoras que operan bajo el solo estimulo de la ganancia y que como intermediarias en el mecanismo de la distribución no cumplen ya función alguna en la economía nacional, constituye un obstaculo a la ejecución de la nueva politica de comercio exterior.

POR CUANTO: El proceso revolucionario impuso la necesidad de dictar leyes cuyo contenido de beneficio popular tendia a liquidar los privilegios de ciertos nucleos economicos los que, reaccionando violentamente, ignoran y violaron esas leyes, llegando aun al extremo de financiar con los dineros mal adquiridos a grupos contrarevolucionarios en franca alianza con el imperialismo financiero internacional y constituye la mejor respuesta a esas actividades que el Gobierno Revolucionario, con serena valentia, promulgue las leyes necesarias a la defensa y consolidación de la Revolución Cubana.

POR CUANTO: Es deber del Gobierno Revolucionario tomar las medidas que demandan las circumstancias expuestas en los Por Quantos anteriores a adoptar formulas que liquiden definitivamente el poder economico de los intereses privilegiados que conspiran contra el pueblo, procediendo a la nacionalización de las grandes empresas industriales y comerciales que no se han adaptado ni se podran adaptar jamas a la realidad revolucionaria de nuestra Patria, y a la vez brindar efectivas garantias y a facilitar por disdintos medios el normal desenvolvimiento de todas aquellas empresas pequenas y medias cuyos intereses pueden y deben coincidir con los grandes intereses de la Nación.

POR CUANTO: La nacionalización debe verificarse mediante la expropiación forzosa de dichas empresas industriales y comerciales, segun lo autoriza el Articulo 24 de la Ley Fundamental de la República.

POR TANTO: En uso de las facultades que le estan conferidas, el Consejo de Ministros resuelvo dictar la siguiente

LEY No. 890

ARTICULO 1.-- Se dispone la nacionalización mediante la expropiación forzosa de todas las empresas industriales y comerciales, asi como las fabricas, almacenes, depositos y demas bienes y derechos integrantes de las mismas, propiedad de las siguientes personas naturales o juridicas:

GRUPO "S" --*(Ver Índice: Nota 2. al pie)
Droguerias
1. Droguería de Johnson, S.A.
2. Droguería Sarra, S.A.
3. Droguería Taquechel, S.A.

ARTICULO 2.-- Se adjudican, por lo tanto, a favor del Estado Cubano, todos los bienes, derechos y acciones de las empresas relacionadas en el Articulo 1. de esta Ley, transfiriendose todos sus activos y pasivos y en su consecuencia, se declara al Estado subrogado en el lugar y grado de sus personas naturales o juridicas propietarias de las mencionadas empresas.

ARTICULO 3.-- La Administración y Dirección de las empresas comerciales e industriales que se dejan adjudicadas al Estado poe esta Ley, se les asigna a los siguientes organismos y dependencias:

4)Las empresas que aparecen en los Grupos Q a la T,--*(Ver Índice: Nota 3. al pie) ambos inclusive, se le asignan a la Oficina Comercial del Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria.

ARTICULO 4.-- Los funcionarios competentes de los organismos y departamentos del Estado a los cuales se les asigna la administracion y direccion de las empresas nacionalizadas, podran designar para cada una de ellas los administradores que elijan, sin perjuicio de las facultades de la Junta Central de Planificacion.

ARTICULO 5.-- Las expropiaciones y consecuentes nacionalizaciones y adjudicaciones a favor del Estado Cubano de las empresas señaladas en el Articulo 1 de esta Ley, se hacen extensivas a las empresas subsidiarias o colaterales de aquellas, lo cual se llevara a efecto por medio de resoluciones que dictaran los jefes de los organismos o departamentos del Estado a quienes se les encomiende la direccion y administracion de las empresas expresamente expropiadas por esta Ley.

ARTICULO 6.-- Se declaran como causas de utilidad publica y de interes social y nacional, asi como de la necesidad de expropiacion, las expuestas en los Por Cuantos de la presente Ley.

ARTICULO 7.-- Los medios y formas de pago de las indemnizaciones que correspondan a las personas naturales o juridicas afectadas por las expropiaciones que se disponen en esta Ley, seran reguladas mediante una Ley posterior. A este efecto, la Junta Central de Planificación procedera a elevar al Consejo de Ministros, dentro del mas breve plazo posible, el correspondiente Proyecto de Ley.

DISPOSICION TRANSITORIA

En cuanto a las empresas industriales y comerciales que en la actualidad se encuentren intervenidas por disposicion de organismos estatales, no incluidas en la presente Ley, se faculta a la Junta Central de Planificación para proceder a la nacionalizacion de las que correspondan de acuerdo con los principios de esta Ley, o en su defecto, disponer el cese de la intervencion.

DISPOSICION FINAL

Se derogan cuantas disposiciones legales y reglamentarias se opongan a lo dispuesto en la presente Ley, la que comenzara a regir a partir de su publicacion en la GACETA OFICIAL de la República.

POR TANTO: Mando se cumpla y se ejecute la presente Ley en todas sus partes.

Dada en el Palacio de la Presidencia, La Habana, Jueves 13 de Octubre de 1960.

OSWALDO DORTICOS TORRADO
Fidel Castro Ruiz - Primer Ministro
Rolando Diaz Aztarain - Ministro de Hacienda







*(b)-Public Law 104-114.

Public Law 104-114
104 th. Congress
An Act
To seek international sanctions against the Castro government in Cuba, to plan for support of a transition government leading to a democratically elected government in Cuba, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

March 12, 1996

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

(a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the "Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD)
Act of 1996".
(b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents of this Act is as follows:
Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings.
Sec. 3. Purposes.
Sec. 4. Definitions.
Sec. 5. Severability.

TITLE I--STRENGTHENING INTERNATIONAL SANCTIONS AGAINST THE CASTRO
GOVERNMENT
Sec. 101. Statement of policy.
Sec. 102. Enforcement of the economic embargo of Cuba.
Sec. 103. Prohibition against indirect financing of Cuba.
Sec. 104. United States opposition to Cuban membership in international financial institutions.
Sec. 105. United States opposition to termination of the suspension of the Cuban Government from
participation in the Organization of American States.
Sec. 106. Assistance by the independent states of the former Soviet Union for the Cuban Government.
Sec. 107. Television broadcasting to Cuba.
Sec. 108. Reports on commerce with, and assistance to, Cuba from other foreign countries.
Sec. 109. Authorization of support for democratic and human rights groups and international observers.
Sec. 110. Importation safeguard against certain Cuban products.
Sec. 111. Withholding of foreign assistance from countries supporting Juragua nuclear plant in Cuba.
Sec. 112. Reinstitution of family remittances and travel to Cuba.
Sec. 113. Expulsion of criminals from Cuba.
Sec. 114. News bureaus in Cuba.
Sec. 115. Effect of Act on lawful United States Government activities.
Sec. 116. Condemnation of Cuban attack on American aircraft.
TITLE II--ASSISTANCE TO A FREE AND INDEPENDENT CUBA
Sec. 201. Policy toward a transition government and a democratically elected government in Cuba.
Sec. 202. Assistance for the Cuban people.
Sec. 203. Coordination of assistance program; implementation and reports to Congress; reprogramming.
Sec. 204. Termination of the economic embargo of Cuba.
Sec. 205. Requirements and factors for determining a transition government.
Sec. 206. Requirements for determining a democratically elected government.
Sec. 207. Settlements of outstanding United States claims to confiscated property in Cuba.
TITLE III--PROTECTION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS OF UNITED STATES NATIONALS
Sec. 301. Findings.
Sec. 302. Liability for trafficking in confiscated property claimed by United States nationals.
Sec. 303. Proof of ownership of claims to confiscated property.
Sec. 304. Exclusivity of Foreign Claims Settlement Commission certification procedure.
Sec. 305. Limitation of actions.
Sec. 306. Effective date.
TITLE IV --EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN ALIENS
Sec. 401. Exclusion from the United States of aliens who have confiscated property of United States
nationals or who traffic in such property.

SECTION 2. FINDINGS.

The Congress makes the following findings:
The Law enumerates twenty eight findings.*(See Index: Note 4. at Footnote)

SECTION 3. PURPOSES.

The purposes of this Act are--
The Law enumerates six purposes.*(See Index: Note 4. at Footnote)
(6) to protect United States nationals against confiscatory takings and the wrongful
trafficking in property confiscated by the Castro regime.

SECTION 4. DEFINITIONS.

As used in this Act, the following terms have the following meanings:
The Law enumerates fifteen terminologies with their respective meanings as related to
PUBLIC LAW 104-114..*(See Index: Note 4. at Footnote)

SECTION 5. SEVERABILITY.

If any provision of this Act or the amendments made by this Act or the application thereof to any
person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, or the
application thereof to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances shall not be affected by
such invalidation.





Note: I have expanded the applicable sections that
corraborate my conclusion, as follows:

TITLE III
Section 301
Section 302
Section 303
Section 304
Section 305
Section 306
TITLE IV
Section 401


TITLE III--PROTECTION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS OF UNITED STATES
NATIONALS

SEC. 301. FINDINGS.
The Congress makes the following findings:
(1)Individuals enjoy a fundamental right to own and enjoy property which is enshrined in the United
States Constitution.
(2)The wrongful confiscation or taking of property belonging to United States nationals by the Cuban
Government, and the subsequent exploitation of this property at the expense of the rightful owner,
undermines the community of nations, the free flow of commerce, and economic development.
(3)Since Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba in 1959-
(A)he has trampled on the fundamental rights of the Cuban people; and
(B)through his personal despotism, he has confiscated the property of-
(i)millions of his own citizens;
(ii)thousands of United States nationals; and
(iii)thousands more Cubans who claimed asylum in the United States as refugees
because of persecution and later became naturalized citizens of the United States.
(4)It is in the interest of the Cuban people that the Cuban Government respect equally the property
rights of Cuban nationals and nationals of other countries.
(5)The Cuban Government is offering foreign investors the opportunity to purchase an equity interest
in manage, or enter into joint ventures using property and assets some of which were confiscated
from United States nationals.
(6)This "trafficking" in confiscated property provides badly needed financial benefit, including
hard currency, oil, and productive investment and expertise, to the current Cuban Government and
thus undermines the foreign policy of the United States-
(A)to bring democratic institutions to Cuba through the pressure of a general economic embargo
at a time when the Castro regime has proven to be vulnerable to international economic
pressure;
and
(B)to protect the claims of United States nationals who had property wrongfully confiscated by
the Cuban Government.
(7)The United States Department of State has notified other governments that the transfer to third
parties of properties confiscated by the Cuban Government "would complicate any attempt to
return them to their original owners".
(8)The international judicial system, as currently structured, lacks fully effective remedies for the
wrongful confiscation of property and for unjust enrichment from the use of wrongfully confiscated
property by governments and private entities at the expense of the rightful owners of the
property.
(9)International law recognizes that a nation has the ability to provide for rules of law with
respect to conduct outside its territory that has or is intended to have substantial effect within
its territory.
(10)The United States Government has an obligation to its citizens to provide protection against
wrongful confiscations by foreign nations and their citizens, including the provision of private
remedies.
(11)To deter trafficking in wrongfully confiscated property, United States nationals who were the
victims of these confiscations should de endowed with a judicial remedy in the courts of the United
States that would deny traffickers any profits from economically exploiting Castro's
wrongful seizures.

SEC. 302. LIABILITY FOR TRAFFICKING IN CONFISCATED PROPERTY CLAIMED BY
UNITED STATES NATIONALS.
(a)CIVIL REMEDY.-
(1)LIABILITY FOR TRAFFICKING.-
-(A)Except as otherwise provided in this section, any person that, after the end of the 3-month period beginning on the effective date of this title, traffics in property which was confiscated by the Cuban Government on or after January 1, 1959, shall be liable to any United States national who owns the claim to such property for money damages in an amount equal to the sum of-
(i)the amount which is the greater of-
-(I)the amount, if any, certified to the claimant by the Foreign Claims Settlement
Commission under the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, plus interest;
-(II)the amount determined under section 303(a)(2), plus interest; or
-(III)the fair market value of that property, calculated as being either the current value
of the property,or the value of the property when confiscated plus interest,whichever is
greater;and
(ii)court costs and reasonable attorneys' fees.
-(B)Interest under subparagraph (A)(i) shall be at the rate set forth in section 1961 of title 28, United States Code, computed by the court from the date of confiscation of the property involved to the date on which the action is brought under this subsection.
(2)PRESUMPTION IN FAVOR OF THE CERTIFIED CLAIMS.-
There shall be a presumption that the amount for which a person is liable under clause (i) of paragraph (1)(A) is the amount that is certified as described in subclause (I) of that clause. The presumption shall be rebuttable by clear and convincing evidence that the amount described in subclause (II) or (III) of that clause is the appropiate amount of liability under that clause
(3)INCREASED LIABILITY.-
-(A)Any person that traffics in confiscated property for which liability is incurred under paragraph (1) shall, if a United States national owns a claim with respect to that property which was certified by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, be liable for damages computed in accordance with subparagraph (C).
-(B)If the claimant in an action under this subsection (other than a United States national to whom subparagraph (A) applies) provides, after the end of the 3-month period described in paragraph (1) notice to-
(i)a person against whom the action is to be initiated, or
(ii)a person who is to be joined as a defendant in the action, at least 30 days before initiating the action or joining such person as a defendant, as the case may be, and that person, after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date the notice is provided, traffics in the confiscated property that is the subject of the action, then that person shall be liable to that claimant for damages computed in accordance with subparagraph(C).
-(C)Damages for which a person is liable under subparagraph (A) or subparagraph (B) are money damages in am amount equal to the sum of-
(i)the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(ii),and
(ii)3 times the amount determined applicable under paragraph (1)(A)(i).
-(D)Notice to a person under subparagraph (B)-
(i)shall be in writing;
(ii)shall be posted by certified mail or personally delivered to the person; and
(iii)shall contain-
-(I)a statement of intention to commence the action under this section or to join the
person as a defendant (as the case may be), together with the reasons therefor:
-(II)a demand that the unlwaful trafficking in the claimant's property cease
immediately; and
-(III)a copy of the summary statement published under paragraph (8).
(4)APPLICABILITY.-
-(A)Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, actions may be brought under paragraph (1) with respect to property confiscated before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act.
-(B)In the case of property confiscated before the date of the enactment of this Act, a United States national may not bring an action under this section on a claim to the confiscated property unless such national acquires ownership of the claim before such date of enactment.
-(C)In the case of property confiscated on or after the date of the enactment of this Act, a United States national may not bring an action under this section on a claim to the confiscated property unless such national acquires ownership of the claim before such date of enactment.
(5)TREATMENT OF CERTAIN ACTIONS.-
-(A)In the case of a United States national who was eligible to file a claim with the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 but did not so file the claim, that United States national may not bring an action on that claim under this section.
-(B)In the case of any action brought under this section by a United States national whose underlying claim in the action was timely filed with the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 but was denied by the Commission, the court shall accept the findings of the Commission on the claim as conclusive in the action under this section.
-(C)A United States national, other than a United States national bringing an action under this section on a claim certified under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, may not bring an action on a claim under this section before the end of the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.
-(D)An interest in property for which a United States national has a claim certified under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 may not be the subject of a claim in an action under this section whose claim has not been so certified shall have the burden of establishing for the court that the interest in property that is the subject of the claim is not the subject of a claim so certified.
(6)INAPPLICABILITY OF ACT OF STATE DOCTRINE.-
No court of the United States shall decline, based upon the act of state doctrine, to make a determination on the merits in an action brought under paragraph (1).
(7)LICENSES NOT REQUIRED.-
-(A)Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an action under this section may be brought and may be settled, without obtaining any license or other permission from any agency of the United States, except that this paragraph shall not apply to the execution of a judgement against, or the settlement of actions involving, property blocked under the authorities of section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act that were being exercised on July 1, 1977, as a result of a national emergency declared by the President before such date, and are being exercised on the date of the enactment of this Act.
-(B)Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and for purposes of this title only, any claim against the Cuban Government shall not be deemed to be an interest in property the transfer of which to a United States national required before the enactment of this Act, a license issued by, or the permission of, any agency of the United States.
(8)PUBLICATION BY ATTORNEY GENERAL.-
Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Attorney General shall prepare and publish in the Federal Register a concise summary of the provisions of this title, including a statement of the liability under this title of a person trafficking in confiscated property, and the remedies available to United States nationals inder this title.
(b)AMOUNT IN CONTROVERSY.-
An action may be brought under this section by a United States national only where the amount in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $50,000, exclusive of interests, costs, and attorneys' fees. In calculating $50,000 for purposes of the preceding sentence, the applicable amount under subclause (I), (II), or (III) of subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) may not be tripled as provided in subsection (a)(3).
(c)PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS.-
(1)IN GENERAL.-
Except as provided in this title, the provisions of title 28, United States Code, and the rules of the courts of the United States apply to actions under this section to the same extent as such provisions and rules apply to any other action brought under section 1331 of title 28, United States Code.
(2)SERVICE OF PROCESS.-
In an action under this section, service of process on an agency or instrumentality of a foreign state in the conduct of a commercial activity, or against individuals acting under color of law, shall be made in accordance with section 1608 of title 28, United States Code.
(d)ENFORCEABILITY OF JUDGMENTS AGAINST CUBAN GOVERNMENT.-
In an action brought under this section, any judgment against an agency or instrumentality of the Cuban Government shall not be enforceable against an agency or instrumentality of either a transition government in Cuba or a democratically elected government in Cuba.
(e)CERTAIN PROPERTY IMMUNE FROM EXECUTION.-
Section 1611 of title 28, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
"(c)Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1610 of this chapter, the property of a foreign state shall immune from attachment and from execution in an action brought under section 302 of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 to the extent that the property is a facility or installation used by an accredited diplomatic mission for official purposes.".
(f)ELECTION OF REMEDIES.-
(1)ELECTION.-Subject to paragraph (2)-
(A) any United States national that brings an action under this section may not bring any other civil action or proceeding under the common law, Federal law, or the law of any of the several States, the District of Colombia, or any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States, that seks monetary or nonmonetary compensation by reason of the same subject matter; and
(B) any person who brings, under the common law or any provision of law other than this section, a civil action or proceeding for monetary or nonmonetary compensation arising out of a claim for which an action would otherwise be cognizable under this section may not bring an action under this section on that claim.
(2)TREATMENT OF CERTIFIED CLAIMANTS.-
(A) In the case of any United States national that brings an action under this section based on a claim certified under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949-
(i)if the recovery in the action is equal to or greater than the amount of the certified claim, the United States national may not receive payment on the claim under any agreement entered into between the United States and Cuba settling claims covered by such title, and such national shall be deemed to have discharged the United States from any further responsibility to represent the United States national with respect to that claim;
(ii)if the recovery in the action is less than the amount of the certified claim, the United States national may receive payment under a claims agreement described in clause (i) but only to the extent of the difference between the amount of the recovery and the amount of the certified claim; and
(iii)if there is no recovery in the action, the United States national may receive payment on the certified claim under a claims agreement described in clause (i) to the same extent as any certified claimant who does not bring an action under this section.
(B) In the event some or all actions brought under this section are consolidated by judicial or other action in such manner as to create a pool of assets available to satisfy the claims in such actions, including a pool of assets in a proceeding in bankruptcy, every claimant whose claim n an action so consolidated was certified by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 shall be entitled to payment in full of its claim from the assets in such pool before any payment is made from the assets in such pool with respect to any claim not so certified.
(g)DEPOSIT OF EXCESS PAYMENTS BY CUBA UNDER CLAIMS AGREEMENT.-
Any amounts paid by Cuba under any agreement entered into between the United States and Cuba settling certified claims under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 that are in excess of the payments made on such certified claims after the application of subsection (f) shall be deposited into the United States Treasury.
(h)TERMINATION OF RIGHTS.-
(1)IN GENERAL.-All rights created under this section to bring an action for money damages with respect to property confiscated by the Cuban Government-
(A) may be suspended under section 204(a): and
(B) shall cease upon transmittal to the Congrsss of a determination of the President under section 203(c)(3)that a democratically elected government in Cuba is in power.
(2)PENDING SUITS.-The suspension or termination of rights under paragraph (1) shall not affect suits commenced before the date of such suspension or termination (as the case may be), and in all such suits, proceedings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if the suspension or termination had not occurred.
(i)IMPOSITION OF FILING FEES.-
The Judicial Conference of the United States shall establish a uniform fee that shall be imposed upon the plaintiff or plaintiffs in each action brought under this section. The fe should be established at a level sufficient to recover the costs to the courts of actions brought under this section. The fee under this subsection is in addition to any other fees imposed under title 28, United States Code.

SEC. 303. PROOF OF OWNERSHIP OF CLAIMS TO CONFISCATED PROPERTY.
(a)EVIDENCE OF OWNERSHIP.-
(1)CONCLUSIVENESS OF CERTIFIED CLAIMS.-
In any action brought under this title, the court shall accept as conclusive proof of ownership of an interest in property a certification of a claim to ownership of that interest that has been made by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 (22 U.S.C. 1643 and following).
(2)CLAIMS NOT CERTIFIED.-
If in an action under this title a claim has not been so certified by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, the court may appoint a special master, including the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, to make determinations are only for evidentiary purposes in civil actions brought under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949.
(3)EFFECT OF DETERMINATIONS OF FOREIGN OR INTERNATIONAL ENTITIES.-
In determining the amount or ownership of a claim in an action under this title, the court shall not accept as conclusive evidence any findings, orders, judgements, or decrees from administrative agencies or courts of foreign countries or international organizations that declare the value of or invalidate the claim, unless the declaration of value or invalidation was found pursuant to binding international arbitration to which the United States or the claimant submitted the claim.
(b)AMENDMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT OF 1949.-
Title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 (22 U.S.C. 1643 and following) is amended by adding at the end the following new section:

DETERMINATION OF OWNERSHIP OF CLAIMS REFERRED
BY DISTRICT COURTS OF THE UNITED STATES

"Sec. 514. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act and only for purposes of section 302 of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD)Act of 1996, a United State district court, for fact-finding purposes, may refer to the Commission, and the Commission may determine, questions of the amount and ownership of a claim by a United States national (as defined in section 4 of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD)Act of 1996), resulting from the confiscation of property by the Government of Cuba described in section 503(a), whether or not the United States national qualified as a national of the United States (as defined in section 502(1)) at the time of the action by the Government of Cuba.".
(c)RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.-
Nothing in this Act or in section 514 of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949, as added by subsection (b), shall be construed-
(1)to require or otherwise authorize the claims of Cuban nationals who became United States citizens after their property was confiscated to be included in the claims certified to the Secretary of State by the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission for purposes of future negotiation and espousal of claims with a friendly government in Cuba when diplomatic relations are restored; or
(2)as superseding, amending, or otherwise altering certifications that have been made under title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 before the date of the enactment of this Act.

SEC. 304. EXCLUSIVITY OF FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION CERTIFICATION
PROCEDURE.
Title V of the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 (22 U.S.C. 1643 and following), as amended by section 303, is further amended by adding at the end the following new section:

EXCLUSIVITY OF FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT
COMMISSION CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE

"Sec. 515. (a) Subject to subsection (b), neither any national of the United States who was eligible to file a claim under section 503 but did not timely file such claim under that section, nor any person who was ineligible to file a claim under section 503, nor any national of Cuba, including any agency, instrumentality, subdivision, or enterprise of the Government of Cuba or any local government of Cuba, nor any successor thereto, whether or not recognized by the United States, shall have a claim to, participate in, or otherwise have an interest in, the compensation proceeds or nonmonetary compensation paid or allocated to a national of the United States by virtue of a claim certified by the Commission under section 507, nor shall any district court of the United States have jurisdiction to adjudicate any such claim."
"(b) Nothing i subsection (a) shall be construed to detract from or otherwise affect any rights in the shares of capital stock of nationals of the United States owning claims certified by the Commission under section 507."

SEC. 305. LIMITATION OF ACTIONS.
An action under section 302 may not be brought more than 2 years after the trafficking giving rise to the action has ceased to occur.

SEC. 306. EFFECTIVE DATE.
(a)IN GENERAL.-
Subject to subsections (b) and (c), this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on August 1, 1996.
(b)SUSPENSION AUTHORITY.-
(1)SUSPENSION AUTHORITY.-
The President may suspend the effective date under subsection (a) for a period of not more than 6 months if the President determines and reports in writing to the appropiate congressional committees at least 15 days before such effective date that the suspension is necessary to the national interests of the United States and will expedite a transition to democracy in Cuba.
(2)ADDITIONAL SUSPENSIONS.-
The President may suspend the effective date under subsection (a) for additional periods of not more than 6 months each, each of which shall begin on the day after the last day of the period during which a suspension is in effect under this subsection, if the President determines and reports in writing to the appropiate congressional committees at least 15 days before the date on which the additional suspension is to begin that the suspension is necessary to the national interests of the United States and will expedite a transition to democracy in Cuba.
(c)OTHER AUTHORITIES.-
(1)SUSPENSION.-After this title and the amendments of this title have taken effect-
(A)no person shall acquire a property interest in any potential or pending under this title; and
(B)the President may suspend the right to bring an action under this title with respect to confiscated property for a period of not more than 6 months if the President determines and reports in writing to the appropiate congressional committees at least 15 days before the suspension takes effect that such suspension is necessary to the national interests of the United States and will expedite a transition to democracy in Cuba.
(2)ADDITIONAL SUSPENSIONS.-The President may suspend the right to bring an action under this title for additional periods of not more than 6 months each, each of which shall begin on the day after the last day of the period during which a suspension is in effect under this subsection, if the President determines and reports in writing to the appropiate congressional committees at least 15 days before the date on which the additional suspension is to begin that the suspension is necessary to the national interests of the United States and will expedite a transition to democracy in Cuba.
(3)PENDING SUITS.-The suspensions of actions under paragraph (1) shall not affect suits commenced before the date of such suspension, and in all such suits, proceedings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if the suspension had not occurred.
(d)RESCISSION OF SUSPENSION.-The President may rescind any suspension made under (b) or (c) upon reporting to the appropiate congressional committees that doing so will expedite a transition to democracy in Cuba.


TITLE IV--EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN ALIENS

SEC. 401. EXCLUSION FROM THE UNITED STATES OF ALIENS WHO HAVE CONFISCATED
PROPERTY OF UNITED STATES NATIONALS OR WHO TRAFFIC IN SUCH PROPERTY
(a)GROUNDS FOR EXCLUSION.-The Secretary of State shall deny a visa to, and the Attorney General shall exclude from the United States, any alien who the Secretary of State determines is a person who, after the date of the enactment of this Act-
(1)has confiscated, or has directed or overseen the confiscation of, property a claim to which is owned by a United States national, or converts or has converted for personal gain confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by United States national;
(2)traffics in confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by a United States national;
(3)is a corporate officer, principal, or shareholder with a controlling interest of an entity which has been involved in the confiscation of property or trafficking in confiscated property, a claim to which is owned by a United States national; or
(4)is a spouse, minor child, or agent of a person excludable under paragraph(1), (2), or (3).
(b)DEFINITIONS.-As used in this section, the following terms have the following meanings:
(1)CONFISCATED; CONFISCATION.-The terms "confiscated" and "confiscation" refer to-
(A)the nationalization, expropriation, or other seizure by the Cuban Government of
ownership or control of property-
(i)without the property having been returned or adequate and effective
compensation provided; or
(ii)without the claim to the property having been settled pursuant to an
international claims settlement agreement or other mutually accepted
settlement procedure; and
(B)the repudiation by the Cuban Government of, the default by the Cuban Government
on, or the failure of the Cuban Government to pay-
(i)a debt of any enterprise which has been nationalized, expropiated, or
otherwise taken by the Cuban Government;
(ii)a debt which is a charge on property nationalized, expropiated, or
otherwise taken by the Cuban Government; or
(iii)a debt which was incurred by the Cuban Government in satisfaction or
settlement of a confiscated property claim.
(2)TRAFFICS.-
(A)Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a person "traffics" in confiscated property if
that person knowingly and intentionally-
(i)(I)transfers, distributes, dispenses, brokers, or otherwise disposes of
confiscated property,
(II)purchases, receives, obtains control of, or otherwise acquires confiscated
property, or
(III)improves (other than for routine maintenance), invests in (by contribution
of funds or anything of value, other than for routine maintenance),or begins
after the date of the enactment of this Act to manage, lease, possess, use, or
hold an interest in confiscated property.
(ii)enters into a commercial arrangement using or otherwise benefiting from
confiscated property, or
(iii)causes, directs, participates in, or profits from, trafficking (as described
in clause (i) or (ii)) by another person, or otherwise engages in trafficking (as
described in clause (i) or (ii)) through another person, without the authorization
of any United States national who holds a claim to the property.
(B)The term "traffics" does not include-
(i)the delivery of international telecommunication signals to Cuba;
(ii)the trading or holding of securities publicly traded or held, unless the trading
is with or by a person determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be a
specially designated national;
(iii)transactions and uses of property incident to lawful travel to Cuba, to the
extent that such transactions and uses of property are necessary to the conduct
of such travel; or
(iv)transactions and uses of property by a person who is both a citizen of Cuba
and a resident of Cuba, and who is not an official of the Cuban Government or
the ruling political party in Cuba.
(c)EXEMPTIONS.-This section shall not apply where the Secretary of State finds, on a case by case
basis, that the entry into the United States of the person who would otherwise be excluded
under this section is necessary for medical reasons or for purposes of litigation of an action
under title III.
(d)EFFECTIVE DATE.-
(1)IN GENERAL.-This section applies to aliens seeking to enter the United States on or after
the date of the enactment of this Act.
(2)TRAFFICKING.-This section applies only with respect to acts within the meaning of "traffics"
that occur on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.


Approved March 12, 1996. *(See Index: Note 4. at Footnote)







LEGISLATIVE HISTORY-H.R.927:
HOUSE REPORTS: Nos. 104-202, Pt.1 (Comm. on International Relations)
104-468 (Comm. of Conference).
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD:
Vol. 141 (1995):Sept.20, 21, considered and passed House.
Oct. 11-13, 17-19, considered and passed Senate, amended.
Vol. 142 (1996):Mar.5, Senate agreed to conference report.
Mar.6, House agreed to conference report.
WEEKLY COMPILATION OF PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS, Vol.32 (1996)
Mar.12, Presidential remarks and statement.







*3. CONCLUSIÓN

CARTA ABIERTA AL GOBIERNO REVOLUCIONARIO CUBANO Y CONJUNTAMENTE DIRIGIDA A LOS VISITANTES DE TAQUECHEL."Hagase saber que la familia Taquechel comenzando el dia 13 DE OCTUBRE, 1960 dia de la EXPROPIACIÓN ILEGAL al dia de hoy: no ha recibido ni se le ha propuesto ningun tipo de compensación ya sea monetario o en deuda por la expropiación forzada e ilegitima de nuestro comercio"
Hemos hecho un desglose sumario del historial de la Droguería Taquechel, empezando en sus inicios, continuando en su época de expansión y desarrollo y terminando el dia de su expropiación ilegítima.
Habiendo llegado a la irrebatibilidad de sus dueños absolutos, hacemos la siguiente declaración conjunta basada en los hechos transcurridos por la imposición ilegal de la "LEY 890" y de la promulgación posteriormente de la Public Law 104-114 of the 104 th. Congress llamada "CUBAN LIBERTY AND DEMOCRATIC SOLIDARITY (LIBERTAD) ACT OF 1996" del derecho de compensación equivalente a los ingresos percibidos por el Gobierno Revolucionario Cubano proviniendo de la Droguería Taquechel y hacemos una petición legal para la compensación e ó indemnización immediata de estas cantidades a sus legítimos dueños.


Antonio J. Viñals Taquechel
Francisco I. Viñals Taquechel
Joaquín F. Viñals Taquechel




*4. DOCUMENTACIÓN

(A.) Ver título en mi página - FOTOS Y CURIOSIDADES - de Taquechel

(B.) Ver Condecoración y joya otorgada en mi página - FOTOS Y CURIOSIDADES - de Taquechel





*5. ÍNDICE / INDEX Y BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Nota 1.--La Ley No.890 no esta completa, he incluido las partes que se relacionan con la Droguería Taquechel, si Ud quiere ver la Ley completa mándeme un correo electrónico y le mandaré la ley completa.
Nota 2.--La ley No.890 divide las empresas por grupos dependiendo de su correspondiente sector económico, del GRUPO "A" al GRUPO "Z", las empresas expropiadas bajo el -GRUPO "S" Droguerias, fueron un total de tres, las cuales estan incluidas.
Nota 3.--La Ley No.890 le asigna a Departamentos, Institutos, y o Interdependencias del Gobierno a cada Grupo, en el caso del Grupo S, Droguerias, se le asignó a la Oficina Comercial del Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria, la Ley divide los Grupos en 9 secciones, cada sección se le asignó una interdependencia gubernamental.
Note 4.--Public Law 104-114 consists of 40 pages, I have listed the complete law with all its Sections,Titles, and Sub-sections and will only limit to expand the parts of the Law 104-114 that are applicable to the proof in my conclusion, nevertheless if you are interested in the complete law you can send me an E-Mail and I will send it to you.
(1.)
López Espinosa, José Antonio. "Contribución a la historia de la bibliografia farmacéutica cubana", ACIMED, 2000.


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Francisco Taquechel  (1869 - 1955)
Para preguntas o si quisiera comunicarse conmigo me puede mandar un correo electrónico a la siguiente dirección:
Name: Antonio J. Viņals Taquechel
Email: antoniojvinals@aol.com

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